Should the courts try to operate efficiently and to what extent is this viable? This study explores the socio-legal context of economic rationality in the legal and judicial systems. What is the proper relationship between ‘efficiency’ and ‘justice’ considerations in a judicial proceeding? Two basic ideas emerge from it. To answer these questions, a conceptual framework is developed on the basis of empirical studies and surveys carried out mainly in the United States, Western Europe and Latin America. What are the relevant criteria for the measurement and assessment of court efficiency? First, economic rationality has penetrated the legal and judicial systems at all levels and dimensions, from the level of society as a whole to the day-to-day operation of the... It examines the meaning and relevance of the concept of efficiency for the operation of courts and court systems,seeking to answer questions such as: in what sense can we say that the adjudicative process works efficiently?